CI Pipelines

Fennec introduces the 5 stages pipeline processes as its default CI process blocks. These processes are specifically designed to cater testing services at commit pushing traffic level, allowing developers to commit small and commit fast easily.

Like any other CI automation, the range for these processes covers right from:

  1. Developers committing into any branch.
  2. Branch level regression testing.
  3. Merge requesting testing.
  4. Scheduled testing.
  5. Packaging product.
  6. Publishing documentations.
  7. Upstream or Distribute product.

We will look through each processes in details alonside with branch management.

Preferred Branch Management

Fennec always set itself to maintain these branches in the repository:

  1. master - production level quality with version release tags.
  2. staging - [OPTIONAL] next production level releases to master branch.
  3. next - the futuristics / edge development branch.

Master Branch

master branch is ONLY branch holding the end product. This is where your customers will be using and recognizing. It should be protected, freezed, and tightly controlled (e.g. accepting merge only from staging or next branches).

Staging Branch

For large or with a lot of dependencies’s projects, staging branch provides a good way to cherry-pick commits from next branch and to create a “point-controlled” update package. Then, the maintainers and developers can thoroughly test this update package until it is stable to merge into the master branch.

This branch is optional for small scale and well-coordinated repositories. The only benefit for having this branch is to freeze a release point for thorough testing (e.g. mission critical application) while leaving the development release progress in tact in the next branch.

Next Branch

next branch is the future, holding all the latest and greatest. This is the branch every developers pushes his/her commits and releases into.

if the staging branch exists, next branch occasionally needs to be rebased from the master branch upon each successful merge from staging to master.

Otherwise, the release freezing point can be done in this branch, tested and merge into master. The good side is that it simple compared to staging branch but at the expense of interrupting development release progress.

Release Strategy

Fennec prefers progressive point release strategy.

This allows Fennec to easily freeze a particular progress, perform testing onto it, package it, distribute or deploy, and publish the documents. This also means Fennec is a strong supporter for Semantic Versioning.

Semantic Versioning (Tagging)

This occurs on master branch for each successful merges. The repository maintainer usually tag the latest commit with a version number, complying to semantic versioning documentation.

Fennec supports the numbering pattern with the letter ‘v’. Here is an example:



By the default recommendations,

  1. major number indicates backward incompatible changes, possibly breaking things.
  2. minor number indicates backward compatible changes, an update to the previous version.
  3. patch number indicates small changes like bug fixes, security releases or documentation updates.


Fennec uses a 5 stages for its pipeline processes. We will review them in details.


Test stage is the 1st stage among all. The goal is to run regression testing like unit testing, etc.

It gets triggered when any developers pushes a commit into any branch.

Test stage works in all branches.


Package stage is the 2nd stage among all. The goal is to build production ready software and package them using the standard packager like deb packager or Snapcraft.

It gets triggered when test stage is passed, and only in selected braches.

Package stage works in staging and master branches.

staging branch is to test the packaging tools working properly.

master branch is the actual packaging event.


Upstream stage is the 3rd stage among all. The goal is to upstream or to distribute the newly built package into the ecosystem.

It gets triggered when package stage is passed, and only in selected branches.

Upstream stage works in master branch.


Publish stage is an independent stage, 4th stage among all. The goal is to generate and publish the repository’s documentations.

It gets triggered when any developers pushes a commit into next branch.


Tasklet stage is an independent stage, 5th stage among all. The goal is to run independent tasks via the CI infrastructures, outside the 1st to 4th stages.

It gets triggered based on its design, e.g. scheduler.